HistoryNeuengamme concentration camp, the largest concentration camp in north-west Germany, was established to the south-east of Hamburg in 1938. The camp existed until 1945. Over 100,000 prisoners from throughout Europe were imprisoned in the main camp and its 86 satellite camps. At least 42,900 people died in Neuengamme, its satellite camps and during the camp evacuations at the end of the war.
After the war, the British occupying forces established an internment camp in the former concentration camp which operated for three years. From 1948, the city of Hamburg established two penal facilities in the buildings and grounds. An international monument was set up at the edge of the grounds in 1965, and in 1981, an exhibition building was added. After the first prison closed in 2003, the memorial was able to expand into a centre for exhibitions, international exchanges and historical studies on the site of the former prisoners' barracks. In February 2006, the second prison closed and its grounds were also incorporated into the memorial.